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2. We steadily advanced supply-side structural reform and made strong progress toward high-quality development.

(二)供给侧结构性改革深入推进,高质量发展取得积极进展。
We focused on top-level planning to promote high-quality development. We implemented the Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development, and took gradual steps toward establishing an institutional system for high-quality development. We continued to make solid progress in supply-side structural reform. With the focus on cutting ineffective supply, fostering new growth drivers, and reducing costs in the real economy, we saw yet further improvements in the composition of supply and sustained increases in the quality and efficiency of development.
着力进行推动高质量发展的顶层设计,制定实施推动高质量发展的意见,推动高质量发展的制度体系逐步建立。扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,以“破、立、降”为主攻方向,持续改善供给结构,发展质量效益稳步提升。
1) Solid progress was achieved in cutting overcapacity.
一是去产能工作扎实开展。
Our efforts to cut overcapacity through structural adjustments and improvements continued. We cut production capacity by over 35 million metric tons of crude steel and 270 million metric tons of coal, thus achieving the targets for steel and coal overcapacity cuts in the 13th Five-Year Plan two years ahead of schedule. A large number of small, poorly-managed, and heavily-polluting enterprises were closed down, and a relatively high rate of industrial capacity utilization was maintained. Further progress was made in handling the debts of "zombie enterprises" and enterprises with excess capacity, and proper steps were taken to help workers displaced due to overcapacity cuts, ensuring they were resettled to new positions or found new employment in a smooth and orderly fashion.
结构性去产能、系统性优产能持续推进,压减粗钢产能3500万吨以上、退出煤炭落后产能2.7亿吨,均提前两年完成“十三五”目标任务,一大批“散乱污”企业出清,工业产能利用率处在较高水平。进一步做好“僵尸企业”及去产能企业债务处置工作,稳妥推进去产能职工安置,转岗再就业工作平稳有序进行。
2) New strides were taken in revitalizing the real economy.
二是振兴实体经济迈出新步伐。
As progress continued in building China into a manufacturer of quality, the total value-added of industry broke the 30-trillion-yuan mark. We promulgated the Guidelines on Promoting the Demonstration and Application of Newly-Developed Major Technological Equipment, and stepped up efforts to make breakthroughs in a number of core and key technologies. We moved forward with the implementation of the Three-Year Action Plan on Enhancing Core Competitiveness in the Manufacturing Sector (2018-2020) and the Action Plan on Developing the Industrial Internet (2018-2020). We promoted the in-depth integration of the internet, big data, and artificial intelligence (AI) into the real economy, and carried out demonstration projects for integrated applications of the industrial internet plus smart manufacturing. Breakthroughs were made at a faster pace in core technologies in key areas such as rail transit, high-end medical appliances, and industrial robots, and these have been successfully applied to industry.
制造强国建设持续推进,工业增加值突破30万亿元。促进首台(套)重大技术装备示范应用的意见印发实施,关键核心技术攻关加快开展。增强制造业核心竞争力三年行动计划(2018-2020年)、工业互联网发展行动计划(2018-2020年)深入实施,推动互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济深度融合,推进工业互联网+智能制造集成应用示范,轨道交通、高端医疗器械、工业机器人等制造业重点领域关键技术加快突破并实现产业化。
We carried out a new round of technology transformation and upgrading projects, and accelerated technology transformations in major areas such as high-end equipment, smart manufacturing, and new materials. Further strides were taken in the strategy to make China a country strong on quality, and our work on strengthening quality, standards, and brands was intensified. We issued the Plan on the Layout and Development of National Logistics Hubs. In the services sector, we continued implementing the guidelines on innovation-driven development, carried out dedicated campaigns to raise quality, and conducted trials of integrated reform.
新一轮技术改造升级工程组织实施,高端装备、智能制造、新材料等重点领域技术改造加快推进。质量强国战略深入实施,标准质量品牌建设持续加强。国家物流枢纽布局和建设规划印发实施。服务业创新发展大纲深入落实,服务质量提升专项行动加快推进,服务业综合改革试点深入开展。
3) Work on bringing down costs continued.
三是降成本工作持续推进。
We stepped up efforts to reduce taxes and fees, helping ease the burden on enterprises and individuals by about 1.3 trillion yuan for the year. The rates of value added tax (VAT) were lowered from 17% to 16% in manufacturing and some other industries, and from 11% to 10% in industries such as transportation, postal services, construction, and basic telecommunications services and on goods such as agricultural products. The annual sales threshold for small-scale taxpayers was raised. The policy of a 75% tax deduction for research and development (R&D) expenses was extended to cover all enterprises. Financial institutions' credit line threshold for VAT exemption rose to 10 million yuan. We reduced or abolished a range of government administrative fees and government-managed funds. We continued the policy of reducing businesses' contributions to social insurance schemes and the housing provident fund, and overhauled and standardized business service fees. We took strong steps to lower energy and logistics costs, and continued to raise the proportion of market-based electricity transactions. The target to cut the price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses by an average of 10% was surpassed. Purchase tax on trailers was halved, and the policy of differentiated tolls was extended to cover more expressways.
大力实施减税降费,全年为企业和个人减负约1.3万亿元。制造业等行业增值税税率从17%降至16%,交通运输、邮政、建筑、基础电信服务等行业及农产品等货物的增值税税率从11%降至10%,提高小规模纳税人年销售额标准,研发费用加计扣除比例提高到75%的政策扩大至所有企业,金融机构免征增值税贷款单户授信额度提高到1000万元。降低、停征一批行政事业性收费和政府性基金。延长阶段性降低社会保险费率和企业住房公积金缴存比例政策期限,清理规范经营服务性收费。大力推动降低用能、物流等成本,市场化交易电量比重进一步提高,全国一般工商业电价平均降低10%的目标超额完成,对挂车减半征收车辆购置税,扩大高速公路差异化收费试点。
3. We made solid progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, and yielded positive results in key tasks.
(三)扎实打好三大攻坚战,重点任务取得积极进展。
We formulated an action plan for winning the three critical battles, for which implementation has proceeded as planned and in accordance with laws and regulations. We scored notable achievements in improving financial governance, hit our poverty alleviation targets for the year, and secured fresh progress in improving the environment.
制定三大攻坚战行动方案,依法依规有序实施,金融治理效果明显,脱贫攻坚完成年度目标,生态环境状况明显好转。
1) Major risks were manageable on the whole.
一是重大风险总体可控。
We have curbed excessively rapid growth of the macro-leverage ratio and maintained general stability in the financial market. The RMB exchange rate has remained generally stable at an appropriate level. Market restraints have been gradually enhanced, and the concept of prudent business operations has taken stronger root. Further improvements were made in financial regulation mechanisms, and initial success was achieved in addressing acute problems in the financial sector. We moved forward with reforms to improve the management system for foreign-debt registration and effectively guarded against foreign debt risks. The growth of commodity housing prices in major cities was basically brought under control, and the policy of providing monetary compensation to people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas was improved according to local circumstances.
宏观杠杆率过快增长势头得到有效遏制,金融市场总体平稳,人民币汇率保持合理稳定,市场约束逐步增强,审慎经营理念得到强化,金融监管制度进一步完善,金融乱象整治取得阶段性成效。稳步推进外债登记制管理改革,有效防范外债风险。重点城市新建商品住宅销售价格上涨态势基本得到控制,因地制宜调整完善棚户区改造的货币化安置政策。
2) Targeted poverty alleviation registered strong progress.
二是精准扶贫精准脱贫有力推进。
We stepped up support and assistance to particular groups affected by poverty and to extremely poor areas, including the three regions and three prefectures. We made solid progress in relocating people from inhospitable areas and implementing work-relief programs. We stepped up initiatives to alleviate poverty through the development of local industries, employment, education, healthcare services, culture, tourism, and the internet, as well as the provision of ecological conservation subsidies and financial support. These efforts have enabled poor areas to boost their capacity for self-sufficient development. Over the year, 13.86 million people in rural areas were lifted out of poverty, our target of relocating 2.8 million people from inhospitable areas was achieved, and we helped 3.88 million people in poverty find jobs.
进一步加大对“三区三州”等深度贫困地区和特殊贫困群体的帮扶力度,易地扶贫搬迁、以工代赈等重点任务扎实推进,产业、就业、教育、健康、生态、金融、网络、文化和旅游等扶贫工作持续深化,贫困地区自我发展能力不断增强。农村贫困人口脱贫1386万人,280万人易地扶贫搬迁建设任务顺利完成,帮扶贫困劳动力实现就业388万人。
3) Major progress was made in the critical battle against pollution.
三是污染防治攻坚战取得重大进展。
Putting into practice Xi Jinping's thinking on promoting ecological progress and the principles from the national conference on ecological and environmental protection, we improved top-level planning for strengthening ecological and environmental protection across the board. Follow-up environmental inspections were carried out by the central government as planned, the river chief and lake chief systems came into effect nationwide, and trials of the national park system registered steady progress. We launched campaigns to protect our blue skies, clear waters, and clean lands across the country and began implementing the Three-Year Action Plan for Keeping Our Skies Blue. The annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased by 10.4% in the cities at and above prefecture level that fell short of the national standards, and further steps were taken to address water and soil pollution. Total emissions of major pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP continued to fall.
深入贯彻习近平生态文明思想和全国生态环境保护大会精神,全面加强生态环境保护的顶层设计进一步完善,中央生态环境保护督察“回头看”有序开展,河长制湖长制全面建立,国家公园体制试点稳步推进。蓝天、碧水、净土保卫战全面推进,打赢蓝天保卫战三年行动计划等出台实施,细颗粒物(PM2.5)未达标地级及以上城市年均浓度下降10.4%,水、土壤污染防治行动深入开展,主要污染物排放总量和单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放量进一步下降。
We took resolute measures to block illegal waste imports, and achieved a reduction of 46.5% in solid waste imports on the previous year. Work on the sorted treatment of waste made rapid progress. We completed the first steps in setting standards for enforcing ecological-conservation red lines in 15 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, including Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, and basically completed plans for 16 others including Shanxi. We formulated the guidelines on deepening reforms for coordinated administrative law enforcement to protect ecosystems and the environment.
坚定不移推进禁止洋垃圾入境,全国固体废物进口总量比上年减少46.5%。加快推进垃圾分类处理。初步划定京津冀等15个省份生态保护红线,山西等16个省份基本形成划定方案。深化生态环境保护综合行政执法改革的指导意见印发实施。
We made steady progress in major ecological conservation and restoration projects. We returned more than 825,333 hectares of marginal farmland to forest or grassland, and undertook projects to return 2.47 million hectares of grazing land to grassland, which involved constructing grassland fencing and improving the condition of degraded grasslands. We did more to protect coastal wetlands and strictly controlled and regulated coastal reclamation activities. Progress was made in establishing market-based mechanisms for diversified ecological compensation and the Guidelines on Innovating and Improving Pricing Mechanisms for Promoting Green Development were issued for implementation.
重大生态保护修复工程有序推进。实施退耕还林还草1238万亩,实施草原围栏、退化草原改良等退牧还草工程3700多万亩。加强滨海湿地保护、严格管控围填海。市场化、多元化生态保护补偿机制建设积极推进,创新和完善促进绿色发展价格机制的意见出台实施。
We steadily moved forward with the work to adopt clean energy sources for winter heating in northern China, and achieved progress in building systems for natural gas production, supply, reserve, and sale. We continued working to cut coal consumption and to replace coal with alternative energy in key areas, and launched trials on trading energy consumption rights. The total volume targets for upgrading coal-burning power plants nationwide to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy efficiency were completed two years ahead of schedule. We made moves to strengthen the development and regulation of the long-term mechanism for absorbing clean energy into power grids, and delivered a reduction in both the amount and ratio of idle power and a decrease of 3.1% in energy consumption per unit of GDP. Steady progress was made in establishing a national market for trading carbon emission rights.
北方地区冬季清洁取暖工作稳妥推进,天然气产供储销体系建设取得积极进展。重点地区煤炭消费减量替代持续推进,用能权交易试点启动实施,提前两年完成燃煤电厂超低排放和节能改造总量目标任务,清洁能源消纳长效机制建设和运行调节加强,弃电量和弃电率实现“双降”,单位国内生产总值能耗下降3.1%。全国碳排放权交易市场建设稳步推进。
On the international stage, China worked to bring about positive results at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poland, and made an important contribution to ensuring the adoption of the Paris Agreement's implementation guidelines.
推动联合国气候变化大会取得积极成果,为《巴黎协定》实施细则的通过发挥重要作用。

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transportation [.trænspə'teiʃən]

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n. 运输,运输系统,运输工具

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address [ə'dres]

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n. 住址,致词,讲话,谈吐,(处理问题的)技巧

 
strengthen ['streŋθən]

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v. 加强,变坚固

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ineffective [ini'fektiv]

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adj. 无效的,无能的,效率低的

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acute [ə'kju:t]

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adj. 敏锐的,剧烈的

 
integration [.inti'greiʃən]

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n. 综合,集成,同化

 
grazing ['ɡreiziŋ]

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n. 牧草;放牧 v. 擦过;抓伤(graze的现在分词

 
effectively [i'fektivli]

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adv. 事实上,有效地

 
proportion [prə'pɔ:ʃən]

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n. 比例,均衡,部份,(复)体积,规模
vt

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manageable ['mænidʒəbəl]

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adj. 易办的,易管理的,易控制的

 
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